Today marks the anniversary of the last recorded lynching in Maryland. We’ll examine not only the 1933 lynching itself – one of the most horrific and brutal ever recorded – but the original crime and how it’s remembered today. Through the use of period newspapers, we can try to piece together the events leading up to both the original crime as well as the night a mob of 2,000 battered down the doors to the jail, removed, mutilated, lynched and burned George Armwood.
Between the Civil War and World War II, the black community, especially in the South, was terrorized by an epidemic of lynchings. As opposed to public executions, the point of lynching was to avoid the court of law, judge and jury. Often times, the victim, in a holding cell for an offense, was kidnapped by a mob before even being arraigned. According to a recent report issued by the Equal Justice Initiate, there were 4,075 lynchings of black Americans across the South between 1877 and 1950. 1In this case, “The South” pertains to the dozen states where the most lynchings occurred: Mississippi (614), Georgia (595), Louisiana (559), Arkansas (491), Alabama (363), Texas (344), Florida (307), Tennessee (238), South Carolina (184), Kentucky (170), North Carolina (122), and Virginia (88). See the EJI site here.
Mob of 2000 Hangs George Armwood, Negro, in Maryland – Despite Heavy Police Presence
Date of Lynching: October 18, 1933
Negro Rushed to Baltimore After Attack
Charged With Assaulting 82-Year-Old White Woman; Threats Heard
Princess Anne, Md., Oct 17 – While George Armwood, 40-year-old negro [other sources claim he was 20], was being held in the Baltimore city jail to protect him against any mob violence, Somerset county authorities today began preparations for a speedy conclusion in the case of the alleged attack on Mrs. Mary Denston, 82-year-old wife of a Somerset farmer, near here yesterday.
Armwood was captured last night near Red Hills, after his hiding place had been revealed by a former employer, who was taken to Princess Anne and Salisbury before state police rushed him to Baltimore when crowds, threatening violence, gathered at Princess Anne, Salisbury, Snow Hill and nearby communities.
State police were without commitment papers for Armwood when they suddenly left the section which was embroiled for the third time within a year over alleged actions against white residents. His admittance to the Baltimore city jail was arranged through Governor Albert C. Ritchie.
The three counties of the section had been combed during the day and early part of the night by posses of more than 500 citizens and county officers, augmented by state police…. 2The Daily Mail; Hagerstown, Maryland; Tue, Oct 17, 1933 – Page 8. Here.
The Wilmington, Delaware News Journal continues the story, explaining the original assault, as well as the capture of Armwood and the gathering lynch mob.
Mrs. Denston was returning from a visit to her daughter, Mrs. Albert Wagner, a mile from her home. As she was passing a clump of woods, a Negro seized her and dragged her into the woods, beat her over the head and tore her clothing from her body. After her assailant fled, Mrs. Denston painfully crawled toward the highway. As she neared the roadway, two employees of the State Roads Commission heard her moans and hurried to her aid. They took her home and obtained a description of the Negro and summoned medical aid for the victim. She said that while she did not know the Negro, she would be able to identify him among a thousand.
Word of the assault spread quickly and in a short time men at work in the fields armed themselves and posses formed and the search started. Police officials in Worcester, Somerset and Wicomico counties were notified and all roads and byways were guarded. Merchants in many places closed their stores and joined in the hunt, while police from all towns in the three counties also combed the sections.
Sheriff Luther Daugherty and Deputy Sheriff Norman Dryden with a squad of State Police were in the van of the many searchers. Dryden, with four State policemen, following information that the man was seen heading for the Virginia line, started in that direction and about 9 o’clock last night learned that a man answering the description had taken refuge in the home of a white man, John Richardson, near Red Hill, six miles south of Pocomoke City and a short distance from the Virginia line. Richardson was a former employer to whom Armwood went for aid. When Richardson learned of the attack he sent word to the police.
The police surrounded the house and Deputy Sheriff Dryden entered and placed the Negro under arrest. Armwood made no resistance and no statement. He was badly frightened.
The Negro was taken to the Princess Anne jail but fearing trouble there he was placed in the rear seat of the policeman’s automobile and covered with a blanket and taken to the Wilcomico county jail where he was smuggled in and lodged in a cell.
Word of his capture soon spread and soon automobiles loaded with members of the posses began to arrive at the jail and demanded that the Negro be turned over to them. Word of the coming of the mob, however, had been sent to the jail and preparations hurriedly made to remove the prisoner to a place of safety.
The order transferring Armwood to Baltimore was approved by Governor Albert C. Ritchie after Captain Johnson reported that in view of the attitude of the crowds gathering in the Eastern Shore communities he felt the Negro “wouldn’t last long” unless the officers succeeded in their efforts to rush him to safety.
Five minutes before an infuriated mob of more than 300 persons forced its way into the Wicomico county jail at Salisbury, he was taken out and again placed in the rear seat of the car and covered up and the machine left, taking the side streets to avoid being trailed by members of the mob. All along the route the police kept to side roads and skirting Pocomoke City continued north… twoard Baltimore to avoid a lynching.
The mob met little resistance at the door of the jail as the sheriff and guards knew the prisoner was well on his way to safety before the mob became threatening. When satisfied that their quarry had been gotten away the mob left the jail but for several hours continued to mill around the vicinity where on December 6, 1931, another negro charged with slaying a Salisbury lumber manufacturer, was strung up and his body later burned. 3The News Journal; Wilmington, Delaware; Tue, Oct 17, 1933 – Page 8. Here.
The News Journal also reported that Armwood “was in Somerset county court three years ago charged with attacking a 75 year old negro woman. The woman did not appear against him and he was dismissed.”
While all of this information was relegated to Page 8, on the front page, the News Journal ran the headline:
Negro Saved From Mob To Be Returned
Maryland’s Governor Ritchie had originally approved of Armwood’s transfer to Baltimore for safe-keeping, but now he was convinced that, despite the warnings from the state police to the contrary, Armwood would be safe.
According to the paper, Ritchie “felt that the authorities there were fully capable of handling the case and that he would make no objections.” 4The News Journal; Wilmington, Delaware; Tue, Oct 17, 1933 – Page 1. Here.
At this point, Mrs. Denston had not yet recovered or identified Armwood. Additionally, it was uncertain that the Grand Jury, which had met in September, could be reconvened. 5The News Journal; Wilmington, Delaware; Tue, Oct 17, 1933 – Page 8. Here.
25 Police Guard Negro On Return to Eastern Shore
The following day, both the Hagerstown Daily Mail and the Wilmington News Journal informed their readers that Armwood was back in Princess Anne.
Armwood was started from Baltimore shortly after 10 o’clock tonight [October 17] under guard of Sheriff Luther Daugherty and eleven state police. Fourteen state officers preceded the prisoner, going to Salisbury by way of Annapolis and across the Chesapeake Bay in a ferry.
Although Somerset county authorities expressed the opinion that there was no danger from mob violence in returning the Negro to Princess Anne, the State police took precaution to guard against any attack.
Saying he thought “the danger of violence has subsided,” State’s Attorney John B. Robbins of Somerset county announced the county grand jury and petite juries would be recalled, probably next Monday to consider the case. He said he would seek the death penalty. 6The Morning News; Wilmington, Delaware; Wed, Oct 18, 1933 – Page 1. Here. The Hagerstown Daily Mail of the same date also claims that Armwood signed a confession. Additionally, State’s Attorney Robins claimed that the county “is law abiding and peaceful.”
By the next morning, George Armwood would be the victim of one of the most brutal and barbaric lynchings in American history.
Negro Lynched, Body Burned in Maryland;
8 Police Hurt as Mob of 1000 Storms Jail
George Armwood arrived in Princess Anne early on October 18th, accompanied by twenty-five police officers sent to guard him from the threat of lynching.
What follows is account of Captain Edward McKim Johnson, in charge of the State Police defending the jail.
The first indication we had there might be trouble appeared about seven o’clock when a crowd began to gather near the jail. But it was a friendly gathering and seemed to have been drawn there out of curiosity rather than to cause us trouble. We had men picketing the vicinity to report any threatening gathering.
About seven-thirty others began to congregate on either side of a vacant lot across the street in front of the jail. They were assembling rapidly, large groups of them on each side. My men – twenty-one officers – were then drawn up in front of the prison. We had placed three automobiles in a position to throw headlights upon the crowd. Four county officers were inside the jail.
Despite our best efforts the two crowds began to close in across the lot in front of the prison. Avalanches of bricks, stones and other missles were hurled at us.
It was futile for us to use our arms. We shot tear gas into the crowds, but as quickly as the fumes cleared they rushed in upon us again. They kicked the cannisters of gas around like footballs.
Our supply of gas was soon exhausted and it then became a hand to hand battle at the entrance to the jail.
They had gotten heavy timbers intent upon battering down the jail door. Three of my men were struck with this battering ram at the jail entrance.
Sergt. E.F. Haddaway, of Claiborne, and Patrolman Clyde Serman, Salisbury, are in the Peninsula general hospital with stomache injuries. Five other officers were treated for bruises and lacerations.
I was struck on the head by a brick or stone at 8:10 and after that I had no first knowledge of what happened. I was taken to Dr. Lankford’s officer for treatment.
It was 8:30 when they finally broke into the jail and took the prisoner.
Before I was struck I saw several in the attack crowd injured and taken away.
No shots were fired. Our men have standing orders not to use their firearms except as a last resort.
We were overwhelmingly outnumbered and were overpowered. That is the whole story.
I saw the sheriff about 2 o’clock in the afternoon when he said he had to go to Crisfield and would return in a short time. He returned to the scene at 7:55.
Between 7:30 and 8, Judge Duer spoke to both crowds. One crowd appeared willing to accept his admonition to leave and some of them did go away. But the other crowd was more stubborn.
It is extremely difficult to estimate the number of a mob moving in waves in all directions. I would say there were between 1,500 and 2,500. 7The Daily Mail
Thu, Oct 19, 1933 – Page 1, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/6815233/10181933_armwood_3b/”>12.
The Wilmington Morning News and Hagerstown Daily Mail continue the story, filling in the details following the assault upon Police Captain Johnson by the white lynch mob.
After the outside door was crushed in, the second door apparently was opened from the inside. With shouts of “Lynch him, lynch him,” the mob reached the Negro’s cell. 8The Morning News; Wilmington, Delaware; Thu, Oct 19, 1933 – Page 8. Here.
The mob of more than a thousand men, women and youths, stopped temporarily by a tear gas attack from the state police, stormed the jail, battered down the heavy steel doors, and after ripping most of the clothes from his body and fastening a rope around his neck, dragged the negro out into the street.
Deputy Sheriff Norman Dryden, warden of the jail, said some men took the keys out of his pocket, adding “I was just scared they were going to get the wrong man.”
Sheriff Luther Daugherty appeared on the scene and tried to persuade the invaders to leave but they pressed on to the second floor and soon returned with the negro. He was gashed on the head and chest but made no outcry.
Partly pulling him on a run and partly dragging him in the road, the mob led him out the main street to the home of Judge Duer. There was no large tree there so they threw the rope over a limb of an oak tree on a nearby lawn. The body laid in the street several hours as local undertakers refused to touch it. Finally state police put it in a truck and took it away.
He was hanged to an oak tree just outside the town after the mob had stripped him of his clothing, attached a rope around his neck, and pulled him behind an automobile through the main streets of the town.
As the mob made its slow progress toward the scene of the hanging, various members leaped at the Negro, screaming and cursing, and repeatedly knocked him down.
The march to the final scene of the hanging was wild in extreme. The mob members seemed crazed, continually leaping on the Negro, even after he fell to the ground and was unable to rise.
One boy, apparently about 18 years of age, slashed the Negro’s ear almost off with a knife.
Under the oak tree, despite the presence of women and children, all the Negro’s clothes were torn from his body and he hung there for some minutes nude.
After the men failed in an attempt to set fire to what remained on his trousers, the negro was dropped to the ground and dragged to the main intersection, where gasoline as poured over the body and set afire.
The rope was cut into short pieces and distributed as souvenirs. 9The Daily Mail; Hagerstown, Maryland; Thu, Oct 19, 1933 – Page 1, 12. The account is cobbled together from an incredibly disjointed newspaper account.
‘Shocked Beyond Expression’ – Government Reaction to the Lynching
The stunning brutality of the lynching shocked most public officials. Despite much of the South being inundated with thousands of lynchings, Maryland had less than twenty since the Civil War.
Though Governor Ritchie agreed to have George Armwood sent back to Princess Anne, where he was lynched, he had been assured by Judge Robert F. Duer and State’s Attorney John B. Robins, that all would be safe. Robins, especially, was certain of this.
“I am shocked beyond expression at this horrible lynching,” stated Governor Ritchie. He immediately directed both Duer and Robins “to take immediate action to set in motion the necessary legal machinery for the apprehension of those who were responsible for or who participated in the lynching.”
The governor placed blame for the lynching squarely upon the shoulders of Duer and Robins. “I told him [Robins] that if the negro was left at Princess Anne and molested that the responsibility would rest on him.” Judge Duer, according to the governor, “was convinced that there would be no trouble of any kind and that it was believed safe to leave Armwood in Princess Anne.”
As word came to Ritchie of the gathering mob, he dispatched fifteen additional state police, as well as the National Guard. Before any could reach the scene, the lynching had been accomplished. 10The Daily Mail; Hagerstown, Maryland; Thu, Oct 19, 1933 – Page 1, 12.
The following day, October 19th, the investigation into the lynching began, headed by Maryland’s Attorney General, William Preston Lane, Jr. Lane met with Robins, Sheriff Daugherty, as well as the State Police.
“Sheriff and town policeman failed to recognize ‘a single soul’ in crowd,” read the front page of the Wilmington Morning News.
This wasn’t entirely true. They had the names of three of the leaders, but it would take more than that to make an arrest.
Not among those gathered for the investigation was Coroner Edgar A. Jones. When asked if he knew who lead the mob, he said that it was outsiders.
Residents of the town and county did not start the lynching talk, according to Coroner Jones. He said the people of the county were willing to let the law take its course, but persons from outside became exercised, he said, at the delay in the case of Euel Lee, who is under sentence of death for a similar crime as committed by Armwood and whose case dragged through the courts until today, when the date of his execution was set for October 27. [Note: Lee was charged with and found guilty of murder, while there was no stated fear that Mrs. Denston’s life was in peril. The crimes were thus not very similar.]
Despite Governor Ritchie’s insistence for a speedy investigation into the lynching, that simply wasn’t going to happen.
Asked about the investigation, [Sheriff Luther Daugherty] asked, “What investigation?” He said he was in the thick of the fray last night in which he and eight State Troopers were injured and the squad of 25 troopers overpowered. He said he looked into the faces of a number of the men in the forefront of the mob but didn’t “recognize a single soul, not a single soul.” He ventured the opinion the leaders of the mob were from down in Virginia.
Marion Austin, Princess Anne’s lone policeman, said there would be no more trouble. Austin was in the thick of the melee, last night, he said, but like Sheriff Daugherty, didn’t see a face he knew.
Husband: She’s Alright Now
That same day – three days after her initial assault – the Morning News reported that 82-year-old Mrs. Denston was in good health. Not only had she recovered, but it was like nothing happened at all.
At the home of Mrs. Denston, 10 miles south of here, the victim of the Negro’s assault was about her household duties. Her husband, Harry, said she was “yes, she’s all right now I guess.”
He said he thought there might be a hearing but said his son had come to him and declared there would be no hearing and “Then I knew everything would be all right,” Denston declared “they got the right man, all right. He made a confession, the officers told me he did.”
Son Involved in Lynching
In the Morning News of October 21st, Mrs. Denston’s son William, the policeman from Philadelphia, claimed to be a witness to the lynching.
George Armwood, Negro, lynched and burned at Princess Anne, Md., on Wednesday night, “got what was coming to him.”
This declaration was made emphatically today by William Denston, 35, Lower Merion motorcycle policeman, and a son of Mrs. Mary Denston, who Armwood was accused of attacking.
“Justice has been done,” declared Denston, who was present at the lynching.
“Armwood got what was coming to him. He should have been lynched.”
“I witnessed the storming of the jail and saw the actual lynching,” said Denston, “but took no part in the mob action. I think Armwood should have been lynched. He did a terrible thing. He attacked my mother.” 12The Morning News; Wilmington, Delaware; Sat, Oct 21, 1933 – Page 2. Here.
A More Recent Defense of the Lynching
The family lore surrounding the attack upon Mrs. Denston has apparently amplified the claims of the original crime. Armwood was accused of attacking Mrs. Denston, and, in at least one report, beating her over the head and tearing her clothes. There was no mention of rape, robbery, etc.
Nevertheless, a great-granddaaughter of Mrs. Denston claims:
He robbed her, beat her, and raped her. She was 71. He chewed off her breasts. When she didn’t return home, there was a search party organized and she was found whimpering in the woods. She even caught pneumonia because of this. She was able to identify her attacker, who was a farmhand in his early 20s, he was found, arrested and put in jail.”
This remembrance, given in the comments section of a Facebook post, is a fine example of why history needs to be learned and remembered from original sources. Her description of the attack wanders into the realm of absurdity.
While there was no mention of robbery in any of the original accounts, it’s understandable that it might have occurred and not have been mentioned. It’s also likely that Mrs. Denston was beaten – one account claims that she was hit over the head. Again, there is no mention of rape, though one account mentions that he tore off her clothes – this seems to be the only account that mentions this detail.
The claim that Armwood “chewed off her breasts” is preposterous. The attack happened on the night of October 17th. Three days later, her husband was interviewed. He stated that she was “alright,” while the reporter wrote that she was doing housework. If parts of her body had been chewed off, she would still have been in the hospital.
Moving along, the great-granddaughter has other key details wrong (apart from the age of Mrs. Denston). It’s possible that a search party was formed, though there is no mention of one. But she was not found whimpering in the woods by this search party. She was found by two road workers. It’s also possible that she caught pneumonia from this, but she seemed to be healthy enough three days later.
The claim that Mrs. Denston identified her attacker is simply not true. Nobody at the time made that claim. At the time, Armwood was suspected and found, but Mrs. Denston never had a chance to see him. Immediately after the arrest, he was whisked from jail to jail. When he finally wound up back in Princess Anne, he was there only a few hours before the lynching. At no time was there mention of Mrs. Denston traveling the ten miles from her home to the town to identify Armwood. It’s, of course, possible that she was at the lynching herself, but according to the great-granddaughter’s account, she would have been in no condition at all to be there. 13A screencap of the account given is available here. It was written on September 7, 2016 on the American Civil War Facebook page.
The Aftermath and Arrests
From the State of Maryland’s write up on the lynching:
Governor Ritchie blamed Judge Duer and State Attorney Robins for Armwood’s lynching and prompted an investigation to find those responsible. A grand jury heard testimony from 42 witnesses to the Armwood lynching, including twelve black men who were held in the jail and had heard, if not saw, Armwood dragged to his death. As predicted, those interviewed claimed that the organizers of the lynching were not from the local community, and therefore they could not identify anyone involved that night.
Ralph Matthews, editor for the Afro-American newspaper, in an interview with Deputy Dryden, reported the name Shelburn Lester as the man who rushed and injured Capt. Johnson. It was apparent that people of Salisbury and Princess Anne were deeply involved with the lynching, and the mob was not composed of strangers and out-of-towners as many asserted later. Even after state police identified nine men as acting leaders of the mob, a local jury issued not one indictment for Armwood´s murder.
Attorney General Preston Lane ordered the National Guard to Salisbury and arrest suspected lynchers. Twelve men total were named as being members of the lynch mob. Hostilities between the Salisbury locals and the National Guard broke out. It reached the point where local chants of “Lynch Lane” prompted the State Attorney General to leave the city. The next day in Somerset County, four men were on trial for the lynching in Princess Anne on a habeas corpus hearing. One thousand white supporters cheered as the jury ordered the release of the accused, and dismissed the case forever. 14For their write up, as well as several original sources unavailable elsewhere, go here.
Over Sixty Other Lynchings This Week
What follows is a list of all known racially-motivated lynchings between October 19 and October 23, 1877-1950. It should be in the forefront of your mind that the “crimes” listed are only what the victims of the lynchings were accused of committing. They were allowed no trials, and thus they were not guilty in the eyes of the law. Certainly some may have done what they were accused of doing, but in a constitutional society that values law and order over mob rule, each and every lynching was a miscarriage of justice and a horrible wrong. 15For more information on all of this, please see our post here.
It must also be remembered that this list is incomplete. Not only were there unreported lynchings, but the databases I draw from are understandably inadequate.Year Victim City State Race Sex Form Alleged Offense
October 171878 James Stafford Tensas LA Black Male Shot Race prejudice; political activities 1878 Louis Postlewaite Tensas LA Black Male Shot Race prejudice; political activities 1881 Edmund Davis Union NC Black Male Hanged Ravished young white woman 1890 Willie Singleton Bibb GA Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Assaulting a 16 year-old white girl 1891 Charles Miller Alleghany VA Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Killing two white men 1891 John Scott Alleghany VA Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Killing two white men 1891 Robert Burton Alleghany VA Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Killing two white men 1893 Bill Richardson Chattooga GA Black Male Hanged and shot Murder of a white mam 1893 Jim Dickson Chattooga GA Black Male Hanged and shot Murder of a white man 1895 William Blake Hampton SC Black Male Hanged Murder and robbery of a 60 year-old white man 1903 John Allen Dooly GA Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Possibly for insulting a white woman 1905 Virgil Bowers Laurel KY Black Male Hanged Murder of a white man, a prominent and wealth white lumber dealer 1911 Charles Lewis Hempstead AR Black Male Riddled with bullets Threats to kill a white woman and tried to kill a white man 1914 Tom Junior Columbia FL Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Attacked a married white woman 1935 Bo Bronson Colquitt GA Black Male Shot Refused to let white mob search his home 1942 Wash Howard Jones MS Black Male Hanged Killing a white man, his employer, a dairyman
October 181884 Hollis McCuiston Montgomery MS Black Male Unreported Burning a cotton gin 1886 Reeves Smith DeSoto LA Black Male Hanged Attempted outrage on one of the “most highly respected [white] ladies of the parish” 1893 Sam Jackson St. Tammany LA Black Male Neck broken Wife beating and assaulted a white man 1900 Fratus Warfield Todd KY Black Male Hanged Attempted criminal assault on a married white woman 1901 William Sanders Hampton SC Black Male Hanged Burglary of a white doctor’s home 1903 George Kennedy Bossier LA Black Male Hanged Threats to kill a white train conductor 1933 George Armwood Princess Anne MD Black Male Beaten, Stabbed, Mutilated, Hanged Attempted assault, rape,
October 191878 Mundy Hill Tensas LA Black Male Hanged Race prejudice; political activities 1884 Stephen Sasser Early GA Black Male Riddled with bullets Cohabiting with a white woman 1889 Unnamed Negro DeSoto MS Black Male Hanged Criminal assault on a young black girl 1893 Unnamed Negro #1 Bossier LA Black Male Unreported Stealing hogs 1893 Unnamed Negro #2 Bossier LA Black Male Unreported Stealing hogs 1896 Unnamed Negro Leflore MS Black Male Hanged Murder of a white man 1899 Joseph Leflore Leake MS Black Male Burned Murder of a white family and arson 1900 Melby Dotson W Baton Rouge LA Black Male Hanged Shot a white man, a railroad conductor 1903 Unnamed Negro Wayne GA Black Male Unknown Attempted outrage on a white woman 1911 Jerry Lovelace Meriwether GA Black Male Hanged Assault of a white man, his ex-boss
October 201887 Drew Green Franklin LA Black Male Hanged Attempted assault on two white girls 1887 Perry King Franklin LA Black Male Hanged Attempted assault on two white girls 1894 Stephen Williams Upper Marlboro MD Black Male Hanged, Shot Attempted Rape 1902 Unnamed Negro Jones MS Black Male Shot Attempted assault on a white woman 1902 Charles A. Young St. Francis AR Black Male Burned Rape and murder of a married white woman 1908 Tom Stover Morgan AL Black Male Riddled with bullets Attempted assault of young unmarried white woman 1919 Alexander Wilson Lee AR Black Male Shot Murder of a unmarried 19 year-old white woman
October 211882 William Harris Lincoln LA Black Male Shot Attempted outrage of a 10 year-old white girl, daughter of his employer 1885 George Ward Barbour AL Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Murder of a white man and murderous assault on another 1886 Unnamed Negro #1 of 3 Pickens AL Black Male Hanged Arson of a white man’s house 1886 Unnamed Negro #2 of 3 Pickens AL Black Male Hanged Arson of a white man’s house 1886 Unnamed Negro #3 of 3 Pickens AL Black Male Hanged Arson of a white man’s house 1893 Arthur Bennett Clayton GA Black Male Hanged Attempted murder by poisoning a white family 1898 Arch Bauer Cumberland KY Black Male Hanged and shot Assaulting and attempted murder of a young unmarried white woman, a prominent white farmer’s daughter 1899 Albert Harris Monroe GA Black Male Whipped Unknown 1900 Unnamed Negro Houston GA Black Male Unreported Rape of black girl 1902 Jim Wesley Hempstead TX Black Male Hanged Assault and Murder of a white woman 1902 Reddick Barton Hempstead TX Black Male Hanged Assault and Murder of a white woman 1906 Robert Clarke Jackson MS Black Male Hanged Attempted criminal assault on two white women 1916 Anthony Crawford Abbeville SC Black Male Hanged/RwB Hit a white man in the head with a hammer [assault] when Crawford was being attacked
October 221883 Joe Holden Wilkerson GA Black Male Shot Revenge 1886 James Haynes Bolivar MS Black Male Hanged Murder of a black woman and mutilation of her body 1890 Ovide Godeau Pointe Coupee LA Mulatto Male Hanged Being an outlaw 1895 Dick Henderson Washington AL Black Male Hanged/RwB Attempted rape of a married white woman, the wife of his employer 1900 Gloster Barnes Warren MS Black Male Shot Murder of his wife and wounding a black man 1907 Henry Sykes Chickasaw MS Black Male Hanged Sending an insulting message to a young white woman 1911 Edward Suddeth Coweta OK Black Male Shot Killing a white attorney 1913 Warren Eaton Ouachita LA Black Male Hanged Making insulting remarks to white “lady”
October 231890 John Williams Burke GA Black Male Riddled with bullets Murder of 5 year-old white boy, son of a farmer 1892 Jack Wilson Whitfield GA Black Male Shot Voted for Democratic party 1893 John Gamble Bledsoe TN Black Male Hanged Rape and murder of a white orphan girl 1902 Benjamin Brown Haralson GA Black Male Hanged/RwB Attempted rape of young married white woman 1933 Cephus Davis Stewart GA Black Male Shot Assaulting a white police officer
References [ + ]
1. ⇡ In this case, “The South” pertains to the dozen states where the most lynchings occurred: Mississippi (614), Georgia (595), Louisiana (559), Arkansas (491), Alabama (363), Texas (344), Florida (307), Tennessee (238), South Carolina (184), Kentucky (170), North Carolina (122), and Virginia (88). See the EJI site here. 2. ⇡ The Daily Mail; Hagerstown, Maryland; Tue, Oct 17, 1933 – Page 8. Here. 3. ⇡ The News Journal; Wilmington, Delaware; Tue, Oct 17, 1933 – Page 8. Here. 4. ⇡ The News Journal; Wilmington, Delaware; Tue, Oct 17, 1933 – Page 1. Here. 5. ⇡ The News Journal; Wilmington, Delaware; Tue, Oct 17, 1933 – Page 8. Here. 6. ⇡ The Morning News; Wilmington, Delaware; Wed, Oct 18, 1933 – Page 1. Here. The Hagerstown Daily Mail of the same date also claims that Armwood signed a confession. Additionally, State’s Attorney Robins claimed that the county “is law abiding and peaceful.” 7. ⇡ The Daily Mail
Thu, Oct 19, 1933 – Page 1, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/6815233/10181933_armwood_3b/”>12.
8. ⇡ The Morning News; Wilmington, Delaware; Thu, Oct 19, 1933 – Page 8. Here. 9. ⇡ The Daily Mail; Hagerstown, Maryland; Thu, Oct 19, 1933 – Page 1, 12. The account is cobbled together from an incredibly disjointed newspaper account. 10. ⇡ The Daily Mail; Hagerstown, Maryland; Thu, Oct 19, 1933 – Page 1, 12. 11. ⇡ The Morning News; Wilmington, Delaware; Fri, Oct 20, 1933 – Page 1, 2. 12. ⇡ The Morning News; Wilmington, Delaware; Sat, Oct 21, 1933 – Page 2. Here. 13. ⇡ A screencap of the account given is available here. It was written on September 7, 2016 on the American Civil War Facebook page. 14. ⇡ For their write up, as well as several original sources unavailable elsewhere, go here. 15. ⇡ For more information on all of this, please see our post here.