Cold Blood, Postcards, Voting and Acquittals – This Week In Lynchings

This week, we’ll take a close look at five lynchings that happened this week in history. The first, from 1895, was a case of killing a black man because the black man they wanted to kill wasn’t around. The second is yet another lynching that was memorialized by postcards made after the event in 1899. A year later, a black man is removed from jail a few days before his trial just so he could be lynched. The final two are quite rare for the time – both transpiring in 1946. In one, a black man was beaten to death by five whites. In the second, a black World War II vet was murdered after he voted in an election.

Between the Civil War and World War II, the black community, especially in the South, was terrorized by an epidemic of lynchings. As opposed to public executions, the point of lynching was to avoid the court of law, judge and jury. Often times, the victim, in a holding cell for an offense, was kidnapped by a mob before even being arraigned. According to a recent report issued by the Equal Justice Initiate, there were 4,075 lynchings of black Americans across the South between 1877 and 1950. 1In this case, “The South” pertains to the dozen states where the most lynchings occurred: Mississippi (614), Georgia (595), Louisiana (559), Arkansas (491), Alabama (363), Texas (344), Florida (307), Tennessee (238), South Carolina (184), Kentucky (170), North Carolina (122), and Virginia (88). See the EJI site here.

Black Man Murdered in His Own Home (1895)

Lafayette, La., July 19 – Last Sunday morning news reached here that during the night before a negro named Ovide Belizare had bene killed in his home in or near the town of Royville. The news was that a band a masked men had called at Belizaire’s house in search of a negro named Souloque and were fired on by Belizaire who was subsequently shot and killed.

The Lafayette Gazette, July 27, 1895. - Click to view full size.
The Lafayette Gazette, July 27, 1895. – Click to view full size.

Coroner Gladu left Saturday morning for Royville in company with Deputy Sheriff Mounton, Sheriff Broussard being in Baton Rouge on business connected with his official duties. Coroner Gladu swore Jno. E. Primeaux, Julien H. David, Nelson Higginbotham, J.O. Blanchet and Adam Primeaux as a jury and proceeded to hold an inquest.

We give below the evidence adduced at the inquest, which shows that a most cowardly and horrible murder has been commited.

Jean Tabarlet testified that he saw several persons pass on horseback and about five minutes later saw them return. He heard the reports of about forty pistol shots.

Cilla Burns being sworn, said: “Last night I saw some ten or more persons masked, and on seeing them I was too frightened to notice what was going on. I heard shots from teh mastke dmen. I do not know if my father, Ovide Belizaire, shot and returned the fire for I was too excited. I believe he was sitting on the bed when he was shot.”

Wilson Belizaire said: “Last night at about 10 o’clock some twelve men entired my father’s (Ovide Belizaire) house and asked for Soulouque. My father then told them that Soulouque was not there and they could look for him. They then struck me on the head with some blunt instrument and then the firing began. I found the gun near my father in the yard.”

Honore Burns said: “Some 12 to 13 men masked with handkerchiefs entered Uncle Ovide Belizaire’s house and made inquires about Soulouque. Uncle Ovide said Soulouque was not there and they could look for him. They (the masked men) then shot at Ovide and he returned the fire. After having been shot he jumped through the window with his gun in his hands, and this morning we found the gun near him.”

Sarah Belizare, wife of the murdered man, gave the same testimony as above.

Cornelius Belizaire said: “Last night about 10 o’clock some 12 or more men entered my father’s house and asked for one Soulouque. The men were masked. My father told them that Soulouque was not there and they could look for him. They then shot my father (Ovide Belizaire) and myself in the thigh.”

After hearing the evidence they jury rendered the following verdict: “Said Ovide Belizaire came to his death by the hands of unkonwn parties who feloniously entered his house and shot at him inflicting wounds of which he died.”
– The Lafayette Gazette, July 27, 1895.


Black Man Photographed Before and After Lynching – Postcards Made(1899)

Fayette, Mo., July 22 – Flayed and hanged was the punishment meted out by an infuriated mob to the negro Frank Emery [Embree] this morning at 10 o’clock.

Photo postcard made of the lynching of Frank Embree. July 22, 1899.
Photo postcard made of the lynching of Frank Embree. July 22, 1899.

About three weeks ago Embree, 24 years old, assaulted Miss Willie Dougherty, the 14-year-old daughter of W.W. Dougherty of Burton township, this county. Miss Dougherty is little more than a child and of small stature and delicate.

Since his arrest and extradition from Kansas, Embree has been confined at Mexico, Mo., and it was while on the [way] to his city for trial today that he was taken from his guard of four deputy sheriffs at 6 o’clock this morning at a point on the Fayette & Glasgow road, seven miles north of this city, and carried to the scene of his crime, where numerous strong-armed men, stripped to the waist, laid on Embree’s bare skin with rawhide buggy whips until he was bloody from the roots of the hair of his head to the soles of his feet, after which Embree was hung by the neck until dead. It is said Embree confessed his guilt before dying.

The mob is variously estimated at having been from 1000 to 3000 in number, and is reported to have been quiet, and orderly, despite its frightful work.

He Expected His End
The assault took place near Benton, Howard County, and the girl was most brutally treated. Suspicion rested on Embree, whose reputation was none too good, and he fled to Kansas, but was later brought back upon requisition. It was said at the time that Gov. Stanley of Kansas refused to surrender the prisoner until he received assurance from teh Missouri Governor that Embree would not be lynched. He loudly declared his innocence, but the girl identified him and he was held by the grandjury.

Photo of the lynching of Frank Embree. July 22, 1899.
Photo of the lynching of Frank Embree. July 22, 1899.

Fayette, the county seat of Howard County, was full of muttered threats at the time, and Embree was brought here for safety and placed in the Mexico jail. Here he staed till last night. His trial was set for today in Fayette. A plan to spirit him out of town was formed, and late at night the officers did succeed in getting him out of town and well on the way to Fayette.

It was freely predicted all along in Howard County that Embree would never reach a trial for his crime; that Judge Lynch would sit on his case. That the rumors were well founded was proved last night.

It was known that Embree’s trial was set for today, and he would get into Howard County some time during the night. Very quietly a group of determined and well-armed men gathered at Steinmetz, a little place out from Fayette. Every train was watched. When the one came through with Embree aboard the mob acted.

Embree was taken from the custody of officers and was marched out into the woods. He was told to say his prayers; that his end was come. He protested and declared that he was innocent, but in a weak sort of way.

St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 22, 1899. Click to view full size.
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 22, 1899. Click to view full size.

A rope was brought forth and thrown over the limb of a tree, while the noose was put about the wretched man’s neck. A sharp pull took him off his feet, he dangled, kicking and struggling in midair for awhile; then the corpse settled into the rigidity of death.

The mob riddle the body with bullets and left it hanging there. Then the crowd dispersed.

Embree had feared lynching all along and had begged to be taken to Kansas City for safety, but the officers deemed it unnecessary.

Telephonic and telegraphic communication with Steinmetz seems to have been supposedly cut off.

Second postcard made of the lynching of Frank Embree. July 22, 1899.
Second postcard made of the lynching of Frank Embree. July 22, 1899.

The negro before he left here was warned to prepare for the worst. The negro hung his head and protested his innocence. He said he thought he could prove his innocence if given an opportunity.

Alex Jester, the alledged murderer of Gates, whose cell is near the one Embree occupied, hearing of the negro’s fate, said:

“I believe he was guilty. Of course he would deny it.”

He says that Embree had been downcast from teh time he heard of his indictment.

“When they woke him up this morning,” said Jester, “to take him to his fate he expressed his feelings in unprintable language.”
-St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 22, 1899


Militia Arrives Too Late (1900)

Huntsville, Ala., July 23 – At the hands of a quiet and orderly, but determined mob of 1,000 men, Elijah Clark, a negro boy of twenty years old, this evening paid the extreme penalty for a criminal assault upon a white girl, Susie Priest, twelve years old.

The negro was taken out of jail after the sheriff had been overcome by smoke, carried to the girl and identified, and then taken to the Moore grove, near Dallas, and swung to a limb, his body being riddle with bullets and shot. The body is at a late hour tonight swinging to a limb in a deserted grove and stands as a warning to other negroes who may have an idea of committing this crime.

Clark was guilty of one of the most dastardly cases of assault ever committed in north Alabama. He caught Susie Priest and her sister, Nellie Priest, out in a lonely field and grabbed the former by the throat, threatening to cut her heart out if she did not submit to him.

Nellie Priest escaped and gave the alarm in Dallas. Within a few minutes the entire male population of the village was in pursuit of the negro, who fled into the mountains. The search for the negro continued all night. Deputies were also after him, and he was captured by Deputies Phillips and Jamar at the home of relatives, near Meridianville, eight miles from the scene of the crime. Clark was in bed with two cousins, and they made an attempt to conceal him by sleeping on him. He was hustled out and brought to the city at an early hour this morning. Clark confessed to the deputies that he was the negro who assaulted the girl, and said that knowing that she was a poor factory girl the thought nothing would be done with him.

When then news spread over the town that the negro was in jail the male population of Dallas suspended work, causing nearly the entire Dallas mill to shut down. The men came to town and surrounded the jail. They brought rifles, shotguns and pistols with them, and were ready for any kind of trouble.

Sheriff Fulgham was requested to hand over the keys. He refused, saying that the mob would have to kill him to get them.

A strong guard was placed at the jail armed with winchesters and shotguns. The mob then began to make preparations to break in the jail. The front door was broken open and a rush made for the line of deputies in the hall. The deputies opened fire, and one man, Will Vining, an electric light trimmer, was shot in the shoulder. This checked the mob for a while, and the leaders decided to go about accomplishing their object in some other way.

Several pounds of dynamite were secured and placed against the walls of the jail. The sheriff was again asked to surrender the keys, or have the jail blown up, but he refused again.

Prominent citizens, among them Captain Milton Humes, Captain Daniel Coleman, John H. Walker and others, made speeches in an endeavor to pacify the mob, but they were hooted down.

Shortly after noon a large stick of dynamite was thrown up in the main stairway of the jail. The explosion damaged the stairs and broke every window in the front part of the building. The sheriff was warned to come out with his deputies and prisoners, but he again firmly refused.

The mob then made plans to smoke the officer out of the jail. A barrel of oil, a large amount of tar and several bushels of feathers were placed on the cement ground floor of the jail and set afire. A suffocating smoke arose and the sheriff was compelled to take refuge in the third story of the jail, the deputies and guards seeking the remote corners.

Clipping from the Atlanta Constitution, July 23, 1900.
Clipping from the Atlanta Constitution, July 23, 1900.

At this juncture Circuit Judge H.C. Speake appeared on the jail steps and begged the crowd to disperse. He read a telegram from Governor Johnston, instructing him to hold a special term of court and try the prisoner immediately. The mob held off again and the jail was quiet for an hour.

Judge Speake reappeared at the county courthouse and organized a grand jury, which returned a true bill, after an hour’s deliberation, charging Elijah Clark with rape. The trial was set for Wednesday or Thursday.

At 4 o’clock the mob began to fire up tar and feathers again and another stifling smoke was raised. Chief of Police Overton noted Sheriff Fulgham’s absence from his window on the third floor and feared that he had been smothered. He dashed up the stairs and found Sheriff Fulgham almost overcome by the smoke.

“Oscar,” he said, “you must get out of here or you will die.”

“Go back, Dave,” replied the sheriff, “I must stay here and protect this man. I am willing to die doing my duty.”

Chief Overton compelled the sheriff to come out with him and led him to the city hall. Tonight the sheriff is in a serious condition.

When the sheriff came out the mob had no opposition in the jail and took immediate possession. The negro was in a modern steel cage and there was no way to get him out except by breaking the lock. This was a hard job and required an hour’s work with chisels and sledge hammers. Jailer Connelly offered the key to the cell, hoping to save the fine cage, but it was refused.

The mob continued their work and brought the prisoner out. Before coming on the street, one of teh mob mounted the jail steps.

“Now, gentlemen, you must put up your guns. We don’t want any one to fire a shot, because we don’t want any blood spilled. We are going to hang this man in Dallas, and if no interference, no one will be hurt.”

The prisoner was brought out by a guard of twenty men with rifles. The crowd grew to two thousand persons within a few minutes and marched out to Dallas, one mile distant.

The negro was taken to the home of Susie Priest and the girl was asked if this was the negro. She said:

“That is the man; I can prove it by Nellie.”

Clipping from The Syracuse Post-Standard, July 24, 1900.
Clipping from The Syracuse Post-Standard, July 24, 1900.

The girl’s sister also said this was the man.

The trembling wretch lost control of his legs and members of the mob were compelled to carry him to the Moore grove. A rope was tied around his neck and he was dragged part of teh way. In the old grove, which is now used as a park for the mill operatives, Will Priest, brother of the outraged girl, threw the rope over the limb of an oak tree and tied it securely.

The negro was mounted on a horse and asked if he had anything to say. The negro replied that he did not and the horse was whipped from under him. In ten minutes the negro was dead, and then his body was filled with bullets from half a hundred guns.

No member of the mob made any attempt to conceal his identity and every one engaged in the events of the day is satisfied that justice has been done.

Sheriff Fulgham telegraphed Governor Johnston asking for aid. The governor replied that he had ordered military at Birmingham, Montgomery and Decatur to proceed at once to the scene.
-The Atlanta Constitution, Jul 24, 1900.


Five Whites Beat Black Man to Death for Stealing Saddles – Acquitted (1946)

On July 22, 1946, Leon McAtee, a 35 year old tenant farmer working for Jeff Dodd, Sr. of Holmes, Mississippi, was accused by Dodd of stealing saddles. As many as five white men, Dodd included, proceeded to beat McAtee, who died shortly thereafter.

Clipping from  St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 3, 1946.
Clipping from St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 3, 1946.

As there seems to be almost no coverage of the initial beating, we’ll pick up this story in early August when five men were charged with murder.

Widow Identifies Five Men in Beating, Killing of Negro
Lexington, Miss., Aug 3 – Five white men charged with murder in connection with the beating of a Negro accused of stealing three saddles were released on bond yesterday. Their release followed a hearing before Justice of the Peace W.D. Ford, at which Henrietta McAtee, widow of Leon McAtee, testified:

“I saw my husband last Monday morning with the white men there (and she pointed out the defendants) and he looked almost dead. He was bleeding at the mouth and his eyes were popped.”

She said that later in the day the men drove by her place again and she saw the body of her husband doubled up in the back of a pickup truck.

The defendants are Jeff Dodd Sr., his son, Jeff Dodd Jr.; Dixie Roberts, James E. Roberts and Spencer Ellis, all of Holmes county. The widow did not identify Vernon Vale as one of the men, and charges against him were dropped.
The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 3, 1946.

[The next coverage came over two months later, when Dodd and four others went before a grand jury. More information about the original saddle-theft was also revealed.]

Five Indicted in Flogging Case
Lexington, Miss., Oct. 9 – Five white men have been indicted for manslaughter in connection with the flogging death last July of a negro tenant farmer.

The indictments by the Holmes County Grand Jury were revealed today by Sheriff W.L. Murtagh, who said that manslaughter warrants had been sworn out for arrest of the five men accused of beating to death 35-year-old Leon McAtee.

Clipping from The Pittsburgh Press, October 10, 1946.
Clipping from The Pittsburgh Press, October 10, 1946.

Murtah said four of the five had been arrested and released under $1000 bond each. They were Jeff Dodd Jr., 35; D.G. (Dixie) Roberts, 41; Spencer Ellis, 62; and Jeff Dodd Sr., 65, on whose 300-acre farm McAtee was a tenant.

The fifth defendant, Pvt. James E. Roberts, 19, was on duty at an Army base and had not been arrested.

The men were held for Grand Jury action on murder charges after McAtee’s body was found in a Sunflower County bayou, 60 miles from here, two days after he disappeared.

At that time, the men admitted they whipped McAtee for theft of a saddle, but they claimed he “ray way” after the flogging. McAtee’s two step-sons later confessed to the saddle theft.
-The Pittsburgh Press, October 10, 1946.

[Finally, in October, the case was decided – all five were acquitted.]

Clipping from The Anniston Star (Alabama),  Oct 23, 1946.
Clipping from The Anniston Star (Alabama), Oct 23, 1946.

Five Whites Acquitted of Beating Negro Fatally
Lexington, Miss., Oct 23 – Five white men were absolved today of manslaughter in the flogging death of a Negro.

The men admitted whipping 35-year-old Leon McAtee for a saddle theft confessed later by two others. But the defendants testified in court that the whipping was not severe enough to cause death.

Judge S.F. Davis said that evidence introduced at the two-day trial failed to support the indictments of Spencer Ellis, 62-year-old farmer, and Pvt. James E. Roberts, a soldier on furlough. Both received directed verdicts of acquittal.
-The Anniston Star (Alabama), Oct 23, 1946.

[This story has an interesting epilogue, which can be read in this clipping from The Courier-Journal out of Louisville, Kentucky, October 29, 1946.]


Black WW2 Vet Murdered For Voting (1946)

Again, there is no available coverage of the murder of Maceo Snipes, who died on July 20, 1946, two days after voting in Taylor, Georgia. It is only more recently that his murder has come to light.

From a 2007 article published in the Washington Post:

Answers Sought in 1946 Ga. Killing
ALBANY, Ga. — Maceo Snipes served in the Pacific during World War II and returned home to make history: He became the first black person to vote in Taylor County.
But a day after casting his ballot, he was mortally wounded.

Relatives say the 37-year-old was shot in the back by four white men in 1946 and collapsed in the doorway of his farm house about 90 miles south of Atlanta. He died two days later.
Even though his death certificate lists his cause of death as “gunshot wound by homicide,” there’s no evidence of a criminal investigation into the killing and no one was arrested.

Now, two civil rights groups are pushing to have the 60-year-old unsolved killing investigated.

State NAACP officials and the Prison & Jail Project, a prison advocacy and civil rights group, plan to present their request for a federal probe to the Taylor County Commission on Tuesday and ask the commissioners to support the effort before mailing their written request to U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales.

“What better way for the county commission to show their support for justice than by joining this initiative,” said NAACP President Edward DuBose of nearby Columbus, himself a 21-year Army veteran.

Snipes was shot on July 18, 1946, a day after he voted in the Georgia Democratic Primary. He died on July 20. Fearful relatives buried him at night in an unmarked grave before some family members fled the county, relocating as far north as Ohio. Survivors say they still don’t know the location of Snipes’ grave.

“It wrecked our family for a long time,” said the dead man’s 66-year-old cousin, Felix Snipes, who was 6 at the time. “The older generation still doesn’t want to talk about it.”
The killing was overshadowed by the lynchings five days later of two black couples _ also including a WWII veteran _ some 90 miles away near Monroe that prompted President Harry Truman to dispatch the FBI to investigate that case, which also remains unsolved.

John Cole Vodicka, head of the Prison & Jail Project, said he has studied the Snipes case and interviewed older residents about the crime. He’s convinced that Snipes was killed for simply voting.

“He managed to escape being hurt or killed … fighting for his country, but when he came home and dared to exercise a right that he had fought to defend, he was killed by citizens of his own country,” Vodicka said.

It was rumored that Snipes pulled a knife on his attackers, an allegation his relatives deny.
“One of the real tragedies of this case, in addition to a man being killed because of his skin color, is that the victim is falsely accused of doing something to bring on his demise,” Vodicka said.

“As far as we know, all the suspects that were involved are dead,” he added. “But we want the truth of what happened. That simply means we want those responsible for his murder named, and we want Maceo Snipes’ name cleared.”

A coroner’s inquest was conducted to determine the cause of Snipes’ death, but the case was never presented to a grand jury or a prosecutor, Vodicka said.

Gary Lowe, the county’s current coroner, said he had never heard of the Snipes case and that the sheriff and coroner who served at that time had both died.

The current prosecutor, District Attorney Gray Conger of Columbus and Taylor County Sheriff Jeff Watson were away from their offices Monday and not available for comment. A secretary in the sheriff’s office said it’s unlikely they still have investigative reports from the 1940s.

The county’s five commissioners, which include two black members, also were not available for comment Tuesday.

“I want somebody held accountable for killing my uncle,” said Lulu Montfort, 73, who was 13 when her cousin was killed. “They’re probably all dead now, but people need to know that my uncle didn’t do anything to deserve death.”

After the murder, frightened family members loaded her and her brothers and sisters into the rear of a pickup truck, covered them with a tarpaulin and whisked them away 45 miles to Macon, where some caught a train to Ohio, she said.

“Every person in the state of Georgia needs to know that somebody died for that right to vote – a right we take for granted,” she said.

Flag announcing lynching, flown from the window of the NAACP headquarters on 69 Fifth Ave., New York City. 1936.
Flag announcing lynching, flown from the window of the NAACP headquarters on 69 Fifth Ave., New York City. 1936.

Nearly Ninty Other Lynchings This Week

What follows is a list of all known racially-motivated lynchings between July 18 and July 24, 1877-1946. It should be in the forefront of your mind that the “crimes” listed are only what the victims of the lynchings were accused of committing. They were allowed no trials, and thus they were not guilty in the eyes of the law. Certainly some may have done what they were accused of doing, but in a constitutional society that values law and order over mob rule, each and every lynching was a miscarriage of justice and a horrible wrong. 2For more information on all of this, please see our post here.

Year	Victim	  City State	Race	Sex	Form    Alleged Offense

July 18

1878	Mose Kirkendall	  	  Boone	AR	Black	Male	Hanged							Attempted rape of an unmarried white woman
1881	Houston Turner	 Rutherford	TN	Black	Male	Hanged							Rape of a white woman
1881	Wash Allen		 	 DeSoto	LA	Black	Male	Hanged							Murder of a white man, a store owner
1884	Andy Burke		 Tuscaloosa	AL	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Attempted outrage of a white 13 year-old daughter of a “prominent citizen
1884	Samuel Gibson		  Troup	GA	Black	Male	Shot							Outraged his 14 year-old daughter
1890	Green Jackson	   Columbia	FL	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Outrage on a married white woman
1891	Mack Brown			 Blount	AL	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets			Assault on a married white woman
1895	Andrew Thomas		Jackson	MS	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Criminal assault on a 65-75 year-old married white woman
1910	Evan Roberts		Screven	GA	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Attacked two white women
1924	Harry Shelton		 Kemper	MS	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Insulting a white woman
1926	Frederick Chambers	 Holmes	MS	Black	Male	Shot							Accomplice in the wounding of a white man, a city marshal

July 19

1891	John Farmer			 Chicot	AR	Black	Male	Hanged							Murder of a white doctor
1892	"Doc" Davis			 Newton	MS	Black	Male	Shot							Repeated rapes of a 15 year-old white girl
1893	Rodney Gray		  McCracken	KY	Black	Male	Stabbed							Robbery
1895	Ovide Belizaire	  Lafayette	LA	Black	Male	Shot							Race prejudice
1897	George RichardsonTallapoosa	AL	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Attempted assault on a married white woman, wife of a merchant
1897	James Daniel		  Coosa	AL	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets			Attempted assault on a married white woman, wife of a farmer
1901	Unnamed Negro		Arcadia	LA	Black	Male	Hanged							Shooting at white officer
1903	Crane Green		  Jefferson	AR	Black	Male	Unreported						Criminal assault upon a 12-13 year-old white girl
1905	Henry Harris   Tallahatchie	MS	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets			Shooting two white men, plantation managers
1935	Reuben Stacey		Broward	FL	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Attacked a 30 year-old married white woman with a knife

July 20

1887	John Vanderford		 Fulton	KY	Black	Male	Hanged and shot					Criminal assault on a 6 year-old white girl
1889	Gabe Webster		Sharkey	MS	Black	Male	Shot							Killing a white man, a doctor
1889	Joseph Webster		Sharkey	MS	Black	Male	Shot							Killing a white man, a doctor
1891	Sam Pulliam		   Anderson	KY	Black	Male	Hanged							Rape of a “respectable young [white] married woman”, wife of a prominent farmer
1893	Unnamed Negro	  Lafayette	FL	Black	Male	Unreported						Outraged and murdered a 9-19 year-old white girl
1901	Jesse P. Phillips	Bolivar	MS	Black	Male	Hanged							Killed a white man, a plantation manager
1907	Andrew Trice		 DeSoto	MS	Black	Male	Hanged							Murder of his black mistress
1909	Albert Lawson		  Henry	TN	Black	Male	Hanged							Murderous assault on white sheriff
1909	John King			  Dodge	GA	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Frightening three young women from a prominent white family
1937	Ernest Hawkins		   Leon	FL	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets			Robbery and stabbing white policeman
1937	Richard Ponder		   Leon	FL	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets			Robbery and stabbing white policeman
1946	Maceo Snipes		 Taylor	GA	Black	Male	Shot							Voting in primary election

July 21

1877	Alcide Mouton	 St. Landry	LA	Mulatto	Male	Hanged						Murder of his wife
1880	John Houston	    Bedford	TN	Black	Male	Hanged						Assault on a 6 year-old white girl
1881	John Smith			Laurens	GA	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets		Attempted outrage on a married white woman
1883	George Bert			  Desha	AR	Black	Male	Shot						Killing a white man
1885	Cicero Green		Webster	LA	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets		Attempted murder
1885	John Figures		Webster	LA	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets		Murder of a white man
1894	Vance McClure		 Iberia	LA	Black	Male	Hanged						Attempted rape of a young unmarried white woman
1894	Will Lundy			Osceola	FL	Black	Male	Unreported					Murder of his wife
1897	Ephraim Brinkley	Hopkins	KY	White	Male	Hanged						Bad character, suspected murderer, and hog & cattle thief
1897	Jack Davis		   St. Mary	LA	Black	Male	Hanged						Attempted criminal assault on a widowed white woman 
1901	William Cornish	   Beaufort	SC	Black 	Male	Shot						Attempted assaults on white women
1907	Unnamed Negro #1   	   Lake	TN	Black	Male	Unreported					Quarreling with a white man
1907	Unnamed Negro #2  	   Lake	TN	Black	Male	Unreported					Brother of a man who quarreled with a white man
1924	Unnamed Negro #1	   Lake	FL	Black	Male	Shot						Insulting remarks to a white woman
1924	Unnamed Negro #2	   Lake	FL	Black	Male	Shot						Insulting remarks to a white woman

July 22

1880	George Washington	Stewart	TN	Black	Male	Hanged and shot					Murder of a white man
1881	Albert Brooks		Barbour	AL	Black	Male	Unreported						Killing a black man
1889	Van Malone			 Newton	GA	Black	Male	Beaten, axed, and shot			Attempted rape of a married white woman
1893	Lee Walker			 Shelby	TN	Black	Male	Hanged							Two attempted rapes on white girls and two successful rapes on black girls
1897	Oscar Williams	   Spalding	GA	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Assaulted 6 year-old daughter of a state senator
1901	William Brooks		 Elkins WV	Black	Male	Hanged							Murder
1903	John Gilbert	 Crittenden	AR	Black	Male	Hanged							Murder of a white man, a prominent planter
1946	Leon McAtee			 Holmes	MS	Black	Male	Beaten							Stealing a three saddles from his white employer

July 23

1885	David Scruggs	  Jefferson	AR	Black	Male	Cut with knives					Incest with his young daughter
1887	George Washington  Harrison	MS	Black	Male	Hanged							Attempted rape of a 17 year-old white girl
1890	Tobe Williams		 Blount	AL	Black	Male	Shot							Criminal assault on 10 year-old white girl, daughter of a prominent farmer
1897	Henry Gray			Laurens	SC	Black	Male	Unreported						Ravished a 3 year-old white child
1897	James Sellers		Calhoun	MS	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets			Murder of a white man
1899	Chick Davis			 Ashley	AR	Black	Male	Shot							Murder of a respected white farmer
1899	Louis Sammin		  Early	GA	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets			Robbery and rape
1900	Elijah Clark		Madison	AL	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Criminal assault on 13 year-old white girl
1900	Jack Hilsman	   Crawford	GA	Black	Male	Hanged and riddled with bullets	Attempted assault of 15 year-old white girl, daughter of a prominent planter
1913	Sam White			   Polk	FL	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets			Attempted criminal assault on an old white woman

July 24

1880	Unnamed Negro		 Taylor	GA	Black	Male	Shot	“Terrible crime” against 80 year-old white woman
1887	Richard Hoover	 Rutherford	TN	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets	Outrage on an elderly black woman; outraged a young black girl
1889	John Carter			 Hinton WV	Black	Male	Hanged	Murder (attempted murder – victim did not die)
1891	Jobe Grainger		Simpson	KY	Black	Male	Hanged	Threatened white man, his employer
1896	Isom McGee		  Claiborne	LA	Black	Male	Hanged	Assaulting a married white woman, a school teacher
1899	Henry Novels	   Harrison	MS	Black	Male	Riddled with bullets	Attempted assault on a young white woman
1911	Miles Taylor	  Claiborne	LA	Black	Male	Hanged	Murder of a white man
1917	Sam Powell			Lowndes	AL	Black	Male	Hanged	Threats to kill a white man, a farmer
1917	William Powell		Lowndes	AL	Black	Male	Hanged	Threats to kill a white man, a farmer
1922	William Anderson   Colquitt	GA	Black	Male	Shot	Attempted assault of 15 year-old white girl

References   [ + ]

Has always had a love for history and the Civil War. During the 150th anniversary of the war, writing the Civil War Daily Gazette blog, which published daily for nearly five years. Wishing to continue the exploration, following the Charleston murders in 2015, and the activism around removing the Confederate Battle Flag, decided to dig a little deeper into the causes and repercussions of the War.