This week, we’ll take a close look at five lynchings that happened this week in history. The first, from 1895, was a case of killing a black man because the black man they wanted to kill wasn’t around. The second is yet another lynching that was memorialized by postcards made after the event in 1899. A year later, a black man is removed from jail a few days before his trial just so he could be lynched. The final two are quite rare for the time – both transpiring in 1946. In one, a black man was beaten to death by five whites. In the second, a black World War II vet was murdered after he voted in an election.
Between the Civil War and World War II, the black community, especially in the South, was terrorized by an epidemic of lynchings. As opposed to public executions, the point of lynching was to avoid the court of law, judge and jury. Often times, the victim, in a holding cell for an offense, was kidnapped by a mob before even being arraigned. According to a recent report issued by the Equal Justice Initiate, there were 4,075 lynchings of black Americans across the South between 1877 and 1950. 1In this case, “The South” pertains to the dozen states where the most lynchings occurred: Mississippi (614), Georgia (595), Louisiana (559), Arkansas (491), Alabama (363), Texas (344), Florida (307), Tennessee (238), South Carolina (184), Kentucky (170), North Carolina (122), and Virginia (88). See the EJI site here.
Black Man Murdered in His Own Home (1895)
Lafayette, La., July 19 – Last Sunday morning news reached here that during the night before a negro named Ovide Belizare had bene killed in his home in or near the town of Royville. The news was that a band a masked men had called at Belizaire’s house in search of a negro named Souloque and were fired on by Belizaire who was subsequently shot and killed.
Coroner Gladu left Saturday morning for Royville in company with Deputy Sheriff Mounton, Sheriff Broussard being in Baton Rouge on business connected with his official duties. Coroner Gladu swore Jno. E. Primeaux, Julien H. David, Nelson Higginbotham, J.O. Blanchet and Adam Primeaux as a jury and proceeded to hold an inquest.
We give below the evidence adduced at the inquest, which shows that a most cowardly and horrible murder has been commited.
Jean Tabarlet testified that he saw several persons pass on horseback and about five minutes later saw them return. He heard the reports of about forty pistol shots.
Cilla Burns being sworn, said: “Last night I saw some ten or more persons masked, and on seeing them I was too frightened to notice what was going on. I heard shots from teh mastke dmen. I do not know if my father, Ovide Belizaire, shot and returned the fire for I was too excited. I believe he was sitting on the bed when he was shot.”
Wilson Belizaire said: “Last night at about 10 o’clock some twelve men entired my father’s (Ovide Belizaire) house and asked for Soulouque. My father then told them that Soulouque was not there and they could look for him. They then struck me on the head with some blunt instrument and then the firing began. I found the gun near my father in the yard.”
Honore Burns said: “Some 12 to 13 men masked with handkerchiefs entered Uncle Ovide Belizaire’s house and made inquires about Soulouque. Uncle Ovide said Soulouque was not there and they could look for him. They (the masked men) then shot at Ovide and he returned the fire. After having been shot he jumped through the window with his gun in his hands, and this morning we found the gun near him.”
Sarah Belizare, wife of the murdered man, gave the same testimony as above.
Cornelius Belizaire said: “Last night about 10 o’clock some 12 or more men entered my father’s house and asked for one Soulouque. The men were masked. My father told them that Soulouque was not there and they could look for him. They then shot my father (Ovide Belizaire) and myself in the thigh.”
After hearing the evidence they jury rendered the following verdict: “Said Ovide Belizaire came to his death by the hands of unkonwn parties who feloniously entered his house and shot at him inflicting wounds of which he died.”
– The Lafayette Gazette, July 27, 1895.
Black Man Photographed Before and After Lynching – Postcards Made(1899)
Fayette, Mo., July 22 – Flayed and hanged was the punishment meted out by an infuriated mob to the negro Frank Emery [Embree] this morning at 10 o’clock.
About three weeks ago Embree, 24 years old, assaulted Miss Willie Dougherty, the 14-year-old daughter of W.W. Dougherty of Burton township, this county. Miss Dougherty is little more than a child and of small stature and delicate.
Since his arrest and extradition from Kansas, Embree has been confined at Mexico, Mo., and it was while on the [way] to his city for trial today that he was taken from his guard of four deputy sheriffs at 6 o’clock this morning at a point on the Fayette & Glasgow road, seven miles north of this city, and carried to the scene of his crime, where numerous strong-armed men, stripped to the waist, laid on Embree’s bare skin with rawhide buggy whips until he was bloody from the roots of the hair of his head to the soles of his feet, after which Embree was hung by the neck until dead. It is said Embree confessed his guilt before dying.
The mob is variously estimated at having been from 1000 to 3000 in number, and is reported to have been quiet, and orderly, despite its frightful work.
He Expected His End
The assault took place near Benton, Howard County, and the girl was most brutally treated. Suspicion rested on Embree, whose reputation was none too good, and he fled to Kansas, but was later brought back upon requisition. It was said at the time that Gov. Stanley of Kansas refused to surrender the prisoner until he received assurance from teh Missouri Governor that Embree would not be lynched. He loudly declared his innocence, but the girl identified him and he was held by the grandjury.
Fayette, the county seat of Howard County, was full of muttered threats at the time, and Embree was brought here for safety and placed in the Mexico jail. Here he staed till last night. His trial was set for today in Fayette. A plan to spirit him out of town was formed, and late at night the officers did succeed in getting him out of town and well on the way to Fayette.
It was freely predicted all along in Howard County that Embree would never reach a trial for his crime; that Judge Lynch would sit on his case. That the rumors were well founded was proved last night.
It was known that Embree’s trial was set for today, and he would get into Howard County some time during the night. Very quietly a group of determined and well-armed men gathered at Steinmetz, a little place out from Fayette. Every train was watched. When the one came through with Embree aboard the mob acted.
Embree was taken from the custody of officers and was marched out into the woods. He was told to say his prayers; that his end was come. He protested and declared that he was innocent, but in a weak sort of way.
A rope was brought forth and thrown over the limb of a tree, while the noose was put about the wretched man’s neck. A sharp pull took him off his feet, he dangled, kicking and struggling in midair for awhile; then the corpse settled into the rigidity of death.
The mob riddle the body with bullets and left it hanging there. Then the crowd dispersed.
Embree had feared lynching all along and had begged to be taken to Kansas City for safety, but the officers deemed it unnecessary.
Telephonic and telegraphic communication with Steinmetz seems to have been supposedly cut off.
The negro before he left here was warned to prepare for the worst. The negro hung his head and protested his innocence. He said he thought he could prove his innocence if given an opportunity.
Alex Jester, the alledged murderer of Gates, whose cell is near the one Embree occupied, hearing of the negro’s fate, said:
“I believe he was guilty. Of course he would deny it.”
He says that Embree had been downcast from teh time he heard of his indictment.
“When they woke him up this morning,” said Jester, “to take him to his fate he expressed his feelings in unprintable language.”
-St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 22, 1899
Militia Arrives Too Late (1900)
Huntsville, Ala., July 23 – At the hands of a quiet and orderly, but determined mob of 1,000 men, Elijah Clark, a negro boy of twenty years old, this evening paid the extreme penalty for a criminal assault upon a white girl, Susie Priest, twelve years old.
The negro was taken out of jail after the sheriff had been overcome by smoke, carried to the girl and identified, and then taken to the Moore grove, near Dallas, and swung to a limb, his body being riddle with bullets and shot. The body is at a late hour tonight swinging to a limb in a deserted grove and stands as a warning to other negroes who may have an idea of committing this crime.
Clark was guilty of one of the most dastardly cases of assault ever committed in north Alabama. He caught Susie Priest and her sister, Nellie Priest, out in a lonely field and grabbed the former by the throat, threatening to cut her heart out if she did not submit to him.
Nellie Priest escaped and gave the alarm in Dallas. Within a few minutes the entire male population of the village was in pursuit of the negro, who fled into the mountains. The search for the negro continued all night. Deputies were also after him, and he was captured by Deputies Phillips and Jamar at the home of relatives, near Meridianville, eight miles from the scene of the crime. Clark was in bed with two cousins, and they made an attempt to conceal him by sleeping on him. He was hustled out and brought to the city at an early hour this morning. Clark confessed to the deputies that he was the negro who assaulted the girl, and said that knowing that she was a poor factory girl the thought nothing would be done with him.
When then news spread over the town that the negro was in jail the male population of Dallas suspended work, causing nearly the entire Dallas mill to shut down. The men came to town and surrounded the jail. They brought rifles, shotguns and pistols with them, and were ready for any kind of trouble.
Sheriff Fulgham was requested to hand over the keys. He refused, saying that the mob would have to kill him to get them.
A strong guard was placed at the jail armed with winchesters and shotguns. The mob then began to make preparations to break in the jail. The front door was broken open and a rush made for the line of deputies in the hall. The deputies opened fire, and one man, Will Vining, an electric light trimmer, was shot in the shoulder. This checked the mob for a while, and the leaders decided to go about accomplishing their object in some other way.
Several pounds of dynamite were secured and placed against the walls of the jail. The sheriff was again asked to surrender the keys, or have the jail blown up, but he refused again.
Prominent citizens, among them Captain Milton Humes, Captain Daniel Coleman, John H. Walker and others, made speeches in an endeavor to pacify the mob, but they were hooted down.
Shortly after noon a large stick of dynamite was thrown up in the main stairway of the jail. The explosion damaged the stairs and broke every window in the front part of the building. The sheriff was warned to come out with his deputies and prisoners, but he again firmly refused.
The mob then made plans to smoke the officer out of the jail. A barrel of oil, a large amount of tar and several bushels of feathers were placed on the cement ground floor of the jail and set afire. A suffocating smoke arose and the sheriff was compelled to take refuge in the third story of the jail, the deputies and guards seeking the remote corners.
At this juncture Circuit Judge H.C. Speake appeared on the jail steps and begged the crowd to disperse. He read a telegram from Governor Johnston, instructing him to hold a special term of court and try the prisoner immediately. The mob held off again and the jail was quiet for an hour.
Judge Speake reappeared at the county courthouse and organized a grand jury, which returned a true bill, after an hour’s deliberation, charging Elijah Clark with rape. The trial was set for Wednesday or Thursday.
At 4 o’clock the mob began to fire up tar and feathers again and another stifling smoke was raised. Chief of Police Overton noted Sheriff Fulgham’s absence from his window on the third floor and feared that he had been smothered. He dashed up the stairs and found Sheriff Fulgham almost overcome by the smoke.
“Oscar,” he said, “you must get out of here or you will die.”
“Go back, Dave,” replied the sheriff, “I must stay here and protect this man. I am willing to die doing my duty.”
Chief Overton compelled the sheriff to come out with him and led him to the city hall. Tonight the sheriff is in a serious condition.
When the sheriff came out the mob had no opposition in the jail and took immediate possession. The negro was in a modern steel cage and there was no way to get him out except by breaking the lock. This was a hard job and required an hour’s work with chisels and sledge hammers. Jailer Connelly offered the key to the cell, hoping to save the fine cage, but it was refused.
The mob continued their work and brought the prisoner out. Before coming on the street, one of teh mob mounted the jail steps.
“Now, gentlemen, you must put up your guns. We don’t want any one to fire a shot, because we don’t want any blood spilled. We are going to hang this man in Dallas, and if no interference, no one will be hurt.”
The prisoner was brought out by a guard of twenty men with rifles. The crowd grew to two thousand persons within a few minutes and marched out to Dallas, one mile distant.
The negro was taken to the home of Susie Priest and the girl was asked if this was the negro. She said:
“That is the man; I can prove it by Nellie.”
The girl’s sister also said this was the man.
The trembling wretch lost control of his legs and members of the mob were compelled to carry him to the Moore grove. A rope was tied around his neck and he was dragged part of teh way. In the old grove, which is now used as a park for the mill operatives, Will Priest, brother of the outraged girl, threw the rope over the limb of an oak tree and tied it securely.
The negro was mounted on a horse and asked if he had anything to say. The negro replied that he did not and the horse was whipped from under him. In ten minutes the negro was dead, and then his body was filled with bullets from half a hundred guns.
No member of the mob made any attempt to conceal his identity and every one engaged in the events of the day is satisfied that justice has been done.
Sheriff Fulgham telegraphed Governor Johnston asking for aid. The governor replied that he had ordered military at Birmingham, Montgomery and Decatur to proceed at once to the scene.
-The Atlanta Constitution, Jul 24, 1900.
Five Whites Beat Black Man to Death for Stealing Saddles – Acquitted (1946)
On July 22, 1946, Leon McAtee, a 35 year old tenant farmer working for Jeff Dodd, Sr. of Holmes, Mississippi, was accused by Dodd of stealing saddles. As many as five white men, Dodd included, proceeded to beat McAtee, who died shortly thereafter.
As there seems to be almost no coverage of the initial beating, we’ll pick up this story in early August when five men were charged with murder.
Widow Identifies Five Men in Beating, Killing of Negro
Lexington, Miss., Aug 3 – Five white men charged with murder in connection with the beating of a Negro accused of stealing three saddles were released on bond yesterday. Their release followed a hearing before Justice of the Peace W.D. Ford, at which Henrietta McAtee, widow of Leon McAtee, testified:
“I saw my husband last Monday morning with the white men there (and she pointed out the defendants) and he looked almost dead. He was bleeding at the mouth and his eyes were popped.”
She said that later in the day the men drove by her place again and she saw the body of her husband doubled up in the back of a pickup truck.
The defendants are Jeff Dodd Sr., his son, Jeff Dodd Jr.; Dixie Roberts, James E. Roberts and Spencer Ellis, all of Holmes county. The widow did not identify Vernon Vale as one of the men, and charges against him were dropped.
The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 3, 1946.
[The next coverage came over two months later, when Dodd and four others went before a grand jury. More information about the original saddle-theft was also revealed.]
Five Indicted in Flogging Case
Lexington, Miss., Oct. 9 – Five white men have been indicted for manslaughter in connection with the flogging death last July of a negro tenant farmer.
The indictments by the Holmes County Grand Jury were revealed today by Sheriff W.L. Murtagh, who said that manslaughter warrants had been sworn out for arrest of the five men accused of beating to death 35-year-old Leon McAtee.
Murtah said four of the five had been arrested and released under $1000 bond each. They were Jeff Dodd Jr., 35; D.G. (Dixie) Roberts, 41; Spencer Ellis, 62; and Jeff Dodd Sr., 65, on whose 300-acre farm McAtee was a tenant.
The fifth defendant, Pvt. James E. Roberts, 19, was on duty at an Army base and had not been arrested.
The men were held for Grand Jury action on murder charges after McAtee’s body was found in a Sunflower County bayou, 60 miles from here, two days after he disappeared.
At that time, the men admitted they whipped McAtee for theft of a saddle, but they claimed he “ray way” after the flogging. McAtee’s two step-sons later confessed to the saddle theft.
-The Pittsburgh Press, October 10, 1946.
[Finally, in October, the case was decided – all five were acquitted.]
Five Whites Acquitted of Beating Negro Fatally
Lexington, Miss., Oct 23 – Five white men were absolved today of manslaughter in the flogging death of a Negro.
The men admitted whipping 35-year-old Leon McAtee for a saddle theft confessed later by two others. But the defendants testified in court that the whipping was not severe enough to cause death.
Judge S.F. Davis said that evidence introduced at the two-day trial failed to support the indictments of Spencer Ellis, 62-year-old farmer, and Pvt. James E. Roberts, a soldier on furlough. Both received directed verdicts of acquittal.
-The Anniston Star (Alabama), Oct 23, 1946.
[This story has an interesting epilogue, which can be read in this clipping from The Courier-Journal out of Louisville, Kentucky, October 29, 1946.]
Black WW2 Vet Murdered For Voting (1946)
Again, there is no available coverage of the murder of Maceo Snipes, who died on July 20, 1946, two days after voting in Taylor, Georgia. It is only more recently that his murder has come to light.
From a 2007 article published in the Washington Post:
Answers Sought in 1946 Ga. Killing
ALBANY, Ga. — Maceo Snipes served in the Pacific during World War II and returned home to make history: He became the first black person to vote in Taylor County.
But a day after casting his ballot, he was mortally wounded.
Relatives say the 37-year-old was shot in the back by four white men in 1946 and collapsed in the doorway of his farm house about 90 miles south of Atlanta. He died two days later.
Even though his death certificate lists his cause of death as “gunshot wound by homicide,” there’s no evidence of a criminal investigation into the killing and no one was arrested.
Now, two civil rights groups are pushing to have the 60-year-old unsolved killing investigated.
State NAACP officials and the Prison & Jail Project, a prison advocacy and civil rights group, plan to present their request for a federal probe to the Taylor County Commission on Tuesday and ask the commissioners to support the effort before mailing their written request to U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales.
“What better way for the county commission to show their support for justice than by joining this initiative,” said NAACP President Edward DuBose of nearby Columbus, himself a 21-year Army veteran.
Snipes was shot on July 18, 1946, a day after he voted in the Georgia Democratic Primary. He died on July 20. Fearful relatives buried him at night in an unmarked grave before some family members fled the county, relocating as far north as Ohio. Survivors say they still don’t know the location of Snipes’ grave.
“It wrecked our family for a long time,” said the dead man’s 66-year-old cousin, Felix Snipes, who was 6 at the time. “The older generation still doesn’t want to talk about it.”
The killing was overshadowed by the lynchings five days later of two black couples _ also including a WWII veteran _ some 90 miles away near Monroe that prompted President Harry Truman to dispatch the FBI to investigate that case, which also remains unsolved.
John Cole Vodicka, head of the Prison & Jail Project, said he has studied the Snipes case and interviewed older residents about the crime. He’s convinced that Snipes was killed for simply voting.
“He managed to escape being hurt or killed … fighting for his country, but when he came home and dared to exercise a right that he had fought to defend, he was killed by citizens of his own country,” Vodicka said.
It was rumored that Snipes pulled a knife on his attackers, an allegation his relatives deny.
“One of the real tragedies of this case, in addition to a man being killed because of his skin color, is that the victim is falsely accused of doing something to bring on his demise,” Vodicka said.
“As far as we know, all the suspects that were involved are dead,” he added. “But we want the truth of what happened. That simply means we want those responsible for his murder named, and we want Maceo Snipes’ name cleared.”
A coroner’s inquest was conducted to determine the cause of Snipes’ death, but the case was never presented to a grand jury or a prosecutor, Vodicka said.
Gary Lowe, the county’s current coroner, said he had never heard of the Snipes case and that the sheriff and coroner who served at that time had both died.
The current prosecutor, District Attorney Gray Conger of Columbus and Taylor County Sheriff Jeff Watson were away from their offices Monday and not available for comment. A secretary in the sheriff’s office said it’s unlikely they still have investigative reports from the 1940s.
The county’s five commissioners, which include two black members, also were not available for comment Tuesday.
“I want somebody held accountable for killing my uncle,” said Lulu Montfort, 73, who was 13 when her cousin was killed. “They’re probably all dead now, but people need to know that my uncle didn’t do anything to deserve death.”
After the murder, frightened family members loaded her and her brothers and sisters into the rear of a pickup truck, covered them with a tarpaulin and whisked them away 45 miles to Macon, where some caught a train to Ohio, she said.
“Every person in the state of Georgia needs to know that somebody died for that right to vote – a right we take for granted,” she said.
Nearly Ninty Other Lynchings This Week
What follows is a list of all known racially-motivated lynchings between July 18 and July 24, 1877-1946. It should be in the forefront of your mind that the “crimes” listed are only what the victims of the lynchings were accused of committing. They were allowed no trials, and thus they were not guilty in the eyes of the law. Certainly some may have done what they were accused of doing, but in a constitutional society that values law and order over mob rule, each and every lynching was a miscarriage of justice and a horrible wrong. 2For more information on all of this, please see our post here.
Year Victim City State Race Sex Form Alleged Offense
1878 Mose Kirkendall Boone AR Black Male Hanged Attempted rape of an unmarried white woman 1881 Houston Turner Rutherford TN Black Male Hanged Rape of a white woman 1881 Wash Allen DeSoto LA Black Male Hanged Murder of a white man, a store owner 1884 Andy Burke Tuscaloosa AL Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Attempted outrage of a white 13 year-old daughter of a “prominent citizen 1884 Samuel Gibson Troup GA Black Male Shot Outraged his 14 year-old daughter 1890 Green Jackson Columbia FL Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Outrage on a married white woman 1891 Mack Brown Blount AL Black Male Riddled with bullets Assault on a married white woman 1895 Andrew Thomas Jackson MS Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Criminal assault on a 65-75 year-old married white woman 1910 Evan Roberts Screven GA Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Attacked two white women 1924 Harry Shelton Kemper MS Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Insulting a white woman 1926 Frederick Chambers Holmes MS Black Male Shot Accomplice in the wounding of a white man, a city marshal
1891 John Farmer Chicot AR Black Male Hanged Murder of a white doctor 1892 "Doc" Davis Newton MS Black Male Shot Repeated rapes of a 15 year-old white girl 1893 Rodney Gray McCracken KY Black Male Stabbed Robbery 1895 Ovide Belizaire Lafayette LA Black Male Shot Race prejudice 1897 George RichardsonTallapoosa AL Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Attempted assault on a married white woman, wife of a merchant 1897 James Daniel Coosa AL Black Male Riddled with bullets Attempted assault on a married white woman, wife of a farmer 1901 Unnamed Negro Arcadia LA Black Male Hanged Shooting at white officer 1903 Crane Green Jefferson AR Black Male Unreported Criminal assault upon a 12-13 year-old white girl 1905 Henry Harris Tallahatchie MS Black Male Riddled with bullets Shooting two white men, plantation managers 1935 Reuben Stacey Broward FL Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Attacked a 30 year-old married white woman with a knife
1887 John Vanderford Fulton KY Black Male Hanged and shot Criminal assault on a 6 year-old white girl 1889 Gabe Webster Sharkey MS Black Male Shot Killing a white man, a doctor 1889 Joseph Webster Sharkey MS Black Male Shot Killing a white man, a doctor 1891 Sam Pulliam Anderson KY Black Male Hanged Rape of a “respectable young [white] married woman”, wife of a prominent farmer 1893 Unnamed Negro Lafayette FL Black Male Unreported Outraged and murdered a 9-19 year-old white girl 1901 Jesse P. Phillips Bolivar MS Black Male Hanged Killed a white man, a plantation manager 1907 Andrew Trice DeSoto MS Black Male Hanged Murder of his black mistress 1909 Albert Lawson Henry TN Black Male Hanged Murderous assault on white sheriff 1909 John King Dodge GA Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Frightening three young women from a prominent white family 1937 Ernest Hawkins Leon FL Black Male Riddled with bullets Robbery and stabbing white policeman 1937 Richard Ponder Leon FL Black Male Riddled with bullets Robbery and stabbing white policeman 1946 Maceo Snipes Taylor GA Black Male Shot Voting in primary election
1877 Alcide Mouton St. Landry LA Mulatto Male Hanged Murder of his wife 1880 John Houston Bedford TN Black Male Hanged Assault on a 6 year-old white girl 1881 John Smith Laurens GA Black Male Riddled with bullets Attempted outrage on a married white woman 1883 George Bert Desha AR Black Male Shot Killing a white man 1885 Cicero Green Webster LA Black Male Riddled with bullets Attempted murder 1885 John Figures Webster LA Black Male Riddled with bullets Murder of a white man 1894 Vance McClure Iberia LA Black Male Hanged Attempted rape of a young unmarried white woman 1894 Will Lundy Osceola FL Black Male Unreported Murder of his wife 1897 Ephraim Brinkley Hopkins KY White Male Hanged Bad character, suspected murderer, and hog & cattle thief 1897 Jack Davis St. Mary LA Black Male Hanged Attempted criminal assault on a widowed white woman 1901 William Cornish Beaufort SC Black Male Shot Attempted assaults on white women 1907 Unnamed Negro #1 Lake TN Black Male Unreported Quarreling with a white man 1907 Unnamed Negro #2 Lake TN Black Male Unreported Brother of a man who quarreled with a white man 1924 Unnamed Negro #1 Lake FL Black Male Shot Insulting remarks to a white woman 1924 Unnamed Negro #2 Lake FL Black Male Shot Insulting remarks to a white woman
1880 George Washington Stewart TN Black Male Hanged and shot Murder of a white man 1881 Albert Brooks Barbour AL Black Male Unreported Killing a black man 1889 Van Malone Newton GA Black Male Beaten, axed, and shot Attempted rape of a married white woman 1893 Lee Walker Shelby TN Black Male Hanged Two attempted rapes on white girls and two successful rapes on black girls 1897 Oscar Williams Spalding GA Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Assaulted 6 year-old daughter of a state senator 1901 William Brooks Elkins WV Black Male Hanged Murder 1903 John Gilbert Crittenden AR Black Male Hanged Murder of a white man, a prominent planter 1946 Leon McAtee Holmes MS Black Male Beaten Stealing a three saddles from his white employer
1885 David Scruggs Jefferson AR Black Male Cut with knives Incest with his young daughter 1887 George Washington Harrison MS Black Male Hanged Attempted rape of a 17 year-old white girl 1890 Tobe Williams Blount AL Black Male Shot Criminal assault on 10 year-old white girl, daughter of a prominent farmer 1897 Henry Gray Laurens SC Black Male Unreported Ravished a 3 year-old white child 1897 James Sellers Calhoun MS Black Male Riddled with bullets Murder of a white man 1899 Chick Davis Ashley AR Black Male Shot Murder of a respected white farmer 1899 Louis Sammin Early GA Black Male Riddled with bullets Robbery and rape 1900 Elijah Clark Madison AL Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Criminal assault on 13 year-old white girl 1900 Jack Hilsman Crawford GA Black Male Hanged and riddled with bullets Attempted assault of 15 year-old white girl, daughter of a prominent planter 1913 Sam White Polk FL Black Male Riddled with bullets Attempted criminal assault on an old white woman
1880 Unnamed Negro Taylor GA Black Male Shot “Terrible crime” against 80 year-old white woman 1887 Richard Hoover Rutherford TN Black Male Riddled with bullets Outrage on an elderly black woman; outraged a young black girl 1889 John Carter Hinton WV Black Male Hanged Murder (attempted murder – victim did not die) 1891 Jobe Grainger Simpson KY Black Male Hanged Threatened white man, his employer 1896 Isom McGee Claiborne LA Black Male Hanged Assaulting a married white woman, a school teacher 1899 Henry Novels Harrison MS Black Male Riddled with bullets Attempted assault on a young white woman 1911 Miles Taylor Claiborne LA Black Male Hanged Murder of a white man 1917 Sam Powell Lowndes AL Black Male Hanged Threats to kill a white man, a farmer 1917 William Powell Lowndes AL Black Male Hanged Threats to kill a white man, a farmer 1922 William Anderson Colquitt GA Black Male Shot Attempted assault of 15 year-old white girl
References [ + ]
|1.||⇡||In this case, “The South” pertains to the dozen states where the most lynchings occurred: Mississippi (614), Georgia (595), Louisiana (559), Arkansas (491), Alabama (363), Texas (344), Florida (307), Tennessee (238), South Carolina (184), Kentucky (170), North Carolina (122), and Virginia (88). See the EJI site here.|
|2.||⇡||For more information on all of this, please see our post here.|