With great zeal, many Confederate apologists attempt to convince themselves and others that the Confederacy seceded from the United States for the noble causes of liberty, self-rule and states rights. This is only understandable - the historical reasons given by most Southern leaders were not exactly heroic, becoming or moral.
Prior to the Civil War, the idea to allow slavery to expand unfettered into the territories had been around for decades. Similarly, the fugitive slave law was as old as the original Constitution. Yet, these demands for slavery's protection did not coalesce into a neatly ordered list of grievances until the
As slavery grew and expanded, slave owners worked out new justifications for the institution. While many focused upon the various ways that slavery "improved" the lives of the African race, some fearlessly delved into the sciences. The number of slaves escaping into the free states and Canada greatly increased as the
During the Secession Winter of 1860-1861, several seceding slave states sent commissioners to border slave states in the hopes of convincing them to join them in leaving the United States. In some cases, such as Virginia and Tennessee, the targeted states seceded. In others, such as in Kentucky and Delaware,
The Three-Fifths Clause of the Constitution states that population determined both "representatives and direct taxes". That number was "to be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons ... and three-fifths of all other Persons." While the document stopped just short of referring to these "other persons" as slaves,